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De suikerfabriek
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maandag, 04 augustus 2014 21:12

De suikerfabriek

  1. 1-suikerfabriekVan rietsuikerstengel naar suikerkristal
  2. Stengels pletten met grote persen
  3. Sap verhitten in grote pannen
  4. Langzaam krijg je dikke stroop
  5. Koken in een vacuümpan
  6. Het ontstaan van de eerste suikerkristallen
  7. De kristallen uit de stroop slingeren in een centrifuge
  8. En dan is er bruin gekleurde suiker, een hele berg
  9. Nog in zakken doen en het kan de fabriek verlaten

Tekst en foto's: Dick Groeneveld


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De foto's zijn genomen in Medellin, een gemeente met ruim 50 duizend inwoners in het noorden van het eiland Cebu. In de gemeente is een overvloed aan flora en fauna te vinden, zoals bijzondere meer dan 100 jaar oude acaciabomen en dikke mangrovebossen langs de kust. Medellin staat echter bekend om het suikerriet. Maar liefst 85 procent van de landbouwgrond wordt ermee beplant en neemt daarom een centrale plaats in in het leven van de bevolking van deze gemeente.

Suikerriet is een gekweekt cultuurgewas en behoort net als de oorspronkelijke wilde soorten tot de uitgebreide familie van de grassen. Het riet vormt de bron van suiker en is economisch gezien één van de belangrijkste economisch planten ter wereld, maar is nu minder belangrijk als vroeger.
Suikerriet stamt hoogst waarschijnlijk uit Nieuw Guinea en Indonesië. Lang voor het begin van de jaartelling ontdekte men in India dat door het langdurig koken van het suikerrietsap een vaste zoete substantie ontstond: suiker. Arabische handelaren brachten het suikerriet en de kennis van het maken van suiker in de middeleeuwen naar het Middellandse Zeegebied. Vanaf de vijftiende eeuw werd het suikerriet verder over de wereld verspreid door met name de Spanjaarden en Portugezen. Suikerriet is een gemakkelijk gewas, het groeit op bijna alle grondsoorten.

Vermoedelijk introduceerden Arabische handelaren ook het suikerriet in de Filipijnen. Toen de Spanjaarden in 1521 de Filipijnen voor het eerst bereikten waren er reeds uitgebreide suikerrietplantages op veel van de eilanden, met name in de Visayas. Pas na 1850 werd de productie van suiker uitgebouwd tot een industrie door toedoen van de Brit Nicholas Loney. Vanaf het einde van de zeventiende eeuw tot aan de jaren zeventig van de vorige eeuw was suiker het belangrijkste agrarische exportproduct van de Filipijnen. Momenteel neemt het land als exporteur van suiker in de wereld de negende plaats in en is het na Thailand de grootste suikerexporteur van Zuidoost Azië. Suikerriet wordt op de Filipijnen in een kleine 20 van de 81 provincies verbouwd. De helft van de suiker wordt in de twee provincies van het eiland Negros geproduceerd. De arbeidsomstandigheden in de suikerindustrie laten vaak te wensen over en het is één van de agrarische sectoren waar kinderarbeid nog regelmatig voorkomt.

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